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Field Reversing the Precision E2203 SVR Exit Device

The Precision E2203 is a Surface Vertical Rod exit device with a solenoid in the head that controls the outside lever trim.  Ordered complete with trim: part number is E2203 × 4908A, specify door width, finish, handing, fail safe or fail secure.  The right thing to do is to order it fail safe or fail secure and handed at the factory for your application. 

But… let’s say for the sake of this article that you ordered the device and did not specify handing or fail safe / fail secure. You might find yourself needing to field reverse the handing.  Here is what you need to know.

Handing

Changing the hand on the basic 2200 device is not very difficult, but changing the hand on the E2200 is fairly difficult, and requires skill, patience and … tape.
For the non-electric, purely mechanical version of this device, changing the hand is not as simple as it is with some other exit devices, for example, flipping the device over, but it is not all that hard to do.  Below are the directions for field handing excerpted from the 2200 Series installation instructions from the Stanley Precision web site.   Why they have arranged the steps to be followed in counterclockwise order is a mystery to me, but I am not here to judge, just inform.

At a glance you can see that there is some disassembly of the exit device head required to change the handing of the device. But when you add electrified trim control it complicates things a bit.

In the photo below you see the wires for the solenoid where they pass through the hole in the bracket.  That bracket is an integral part of the active head and it does not move.  However, the solenoid must be installed at the other end of the active head in order to interface with the working parts of the device and the wires are just long enough to allow it to be installed where it is.  There is no play in the wire that would allow the wire to remain where it is and yet allow one to move the solenoid.

 

 

 

In order to move the solenoid to the other side of the active head, one must either cut the wires (a nightmare, do not do it) or to completely disassemble the exit device, bar and all.

Why do you have to completely disassemble the exit device to pull the wire through?  Because it is taped to the baseplate of with a piece of filament tape that runs the length of the bar.  The tape must be removed to free the wire so you can pull it out through the hole in the bracket.

I could not find the directions for changing the hand of the E2203, but here is a drawing of the solenoid placement for the E2103 rim exit device taken from the installation instructions from the E2103 Kit.

 

 

Once you have pulled the wire through the hole, changed the hand of the head, taped the wire back down the length of the bar baseplate and reassembled the device, you’re done.

Below is a picture of the E2203 with handing freshly changed and the device reassembled and ready to install.

 





Like I said: order it fail safe or fail secure… AND ORDER IT HANDED.

 

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Experiencing the New Von Duprin Chexit

Chexit door label from Chexit installation instructions.

Von Duprin Chexit door label from Chexit installation instructions.

Last year Von Duprin began shipping Chexit self-contained delayed egress exit devices that are motorized instead of solenoid driven.  Since they are motorized, the new Chexits draw less current and will probably be more reliable than the previous solenoid-driven version. This means a less serious, less expensive power supply, less need for high capacity, high gauge, high cost wire and greatly increased workable wire run distances – all good things.

The new Chexit will do everything the old Chexit did, including release of the outside lever trim when the external inhibit function is activated by access control or another external switch.  That remains a way to get access control out of a Chexit by simply adding a blank escutcheon or other unlocked outside trim to the Chexit exit device.

As of this writing Exit-only function Chexit devices were being shipped less the part number 040193-00 cable used to connect the E996L to the Chexit PC board.  The cables are only provided if you order the Chexit from the factory with trim, but that is okay as long as you want to use no trim or non-electric trim.  Electrified trim is a means to provide fail secure access control from the trim side, so if the fire alarm goes off and powers down the Chexit, the fail secure electrified trim will stay locked.  Entry can still be gained by key.

On another note, recently I was involved in an application where the installer was replacing a mortise exit device and wanted delayed egress from the push side and free ingress from the pull side.  Luckily it was a mortise device, so all I had to do was provide a Chexit mortise exit device with blank escutcheon (passage function) trim because THE MORTISE LOCK ACTS INDEPENDENTLY FROM THE CHEXIT ON THE TRIM SIDE. Cool. 🙂

Bear in mind that  the Chexit remains active while people are using the passage function trim to get in, so if they happen to depress the touch bar, say by bumping it up against the wall for two seconds, they may activate the Chexit alarm.   Von Duprin Tech Support suggested a palm switch on the trim side to activate the inhibit circuit in the Chexit while a person enters from that side.

 





It was fun, easy, and I looked like a … Hardware Genius.

Choosing a Delayed Egress System: Self-Contained, or Built from Components?

Delayed egress is a process that delays unauthorized exit from a space while complying with NFPA 101 life safety code.  Use of this process is strictly regulated with the help of building inspectors and fire marshals across the United Sates.  With that in mind it is always a good idea to get your local AHJ (Authority Having Jurisdiction) on board whenever you are planning to install delayed egress on an opening.

When you beginning planning your delayed egress system you will find that many systems on the market are self-contained.    These could be delayed egress electromagnetic locks or electrified delayed egress exit devices.

Here are some examples of self-contained delayed egress maglocks:

  • SDC 1511S
  • Schlage Electronics M490DE
  • Dynalock 3101C

Here are some examples of self-contained delayed egress exit devices:

  • Detex V40 EE
  • Von Duprin Chexit
  • Sargent Electroguard

delayed-egress-anatomy
Almost all delayed egress systems are made up of the same components:

  1. Delayed egress timer and relay logic board
  2. Initiating Switch (to initiate the delayed egress process)
  3. Audible alarm
  4. Signage
  5. Reset switch
  6. Optional bypass switch
  7. Fire Alarm interface
  8. Power supply
  9. Locking device

Therefore it is possible to construct a custom delayed egress system from components.  Later I’ll talk about why you might want to choose a built-from-components delayed egress system instead of a self-contained one.   The following sections describe each part of a built-from-components delayed egress system.

Delayed Egress Timer and Relay Logic Board

This board is UL Listed and specifically designed to perform all delayed egress functions in compliance with life safety code.   Here are some examples of component boards for delayed egress:

  • Securitron XDT-12 or XDT-24
  • Seco-Larm SA-025EQ

The board is the brains of the delayed egress operation.  It has contacts to wire in switches for delayed egress initiation, fire alarm interface and system reset, timers to control nuisance and egress delay, and relays to control locks and notify external devices.

There are also delayed egress controllers that offer more features.  The following may include the delayed egress timer/relay board and some other required feature(s) such as the initiation switch or the audible alarm.

  • Alarm Controls DE-1
  • Security Door Controls 101-DE
  • Securitron BA-XDT-12 or BA-XDT-24

Initiating Switch

The switch that initiates the delayed egress process shares several characteristics with any request-to-exit switch.  To comply with life safety regulations it must require no prior knowledge to operate; it must require no more than one motion to operate; and it must be placed in relation to the door according to life safety standards in your local jurisdiction.  I think that the best possible initiation device is a mechanical push bar with a switch, such as the Adams Rite 8099-M or the Securitron EMB.  In a panic situation it remains obvious that to get out, one must push on the bar, and because it is mechanical it is unaffected by power outage.  If it is wired to open the contact when pushed, if the wires leading to it are cut it will initiate the delayed egress process.

In rare circumstances where it might be permitted, the locking device might be a fail safe electrified mortise lock that is locked on both sides, inside and out.  Then the initiation switch might be a palm switch next to the door.

Audible Alarm

The mandatory audible alarm sounds for 15 seconds before the delayed egress controller releases the locking device to allow exit.  It’s loudness must be between 81 and 88 decibels.  In some jurisdictions the alarm must be manually reset at the door; in others it may be self resetting via timer or door position switch.  Yet another reason to have a heart-to-heart talk with your local AHJ when designing your delayed egress system.

Signage

The wording on the mandatory sign must comply with life safety code.  There are minor variations in wording.  I suggest buying a sign that is part of a delayed egress system.  The sign that comes standard with the Von Duprin Chexit is readily available as a separate part.

Reset Switch

As mentioned in the “Audible Alarm” section above, a delayed egress system reset switch located at the door is mandatory in some jurisdictions.  Check with your local AHJ.  In some jurisdictions delayed egress systems are allowed to be reset by remote switch or other means, such as a door position switch.

Any kind of momentary contact switch will do the reset switch job, but delayed egress system reset switches located at the door almost always require some kind of security to prevent unauthorized resetting.   Standalone keypads or key switches are often used for this purpose.  Delayed egress systems can also be integrated into existing access control.

Optional Bypass Switch

Not required but often needed, the optional bypass switch allows authorized personnel to exit without triggering the delayed egress system.  Again, any momentary contact switch will do, but usually some security is required.  If you are using a keypad as the system reset switch and the keypad has more than one relay, you can program the second relay to be the bypass switch.

If access from the exterior side is required a bypass switch is required on that side.  Sometimes security is not needed from the exterior side.  In that case a simple momentary contact pushbutton will do the job.

Fire Alarm Interface

The mandatory fire alarm interface allows enables fire alarm panel to deactivate the delayed egress system immediately in the event of a fire alarm.  This is an integral part of the life safety code that allows a delayed egress system to exist.  Therefore, if your building does not have a fire alarm panel, without special permission from the local AHJ you cannot have a delayed egress system.

Power Supply

All delayed egress systems I have had experience with run on low voltage power that comes from a low voltage power supply.  Generally delayed egress systems require regulated and filtered power at 12 or 24 volts.  Delayed egress controllers draw very little current, but as will all electrically operated systems, the current draw of all attached devices must be taken into account when selecting a power supply.

Locking Device

The locking device must be electrically locked and fail safe from the egress (interior) side.  The most frequently used locking device in a component based delayed egress system is the electromagnetic lock.

Why Build a Delayed Egress System?

Why would you put together a delayed egress system from components when there are so many good self-contained systems?

  1.  To Save Money.  Piecing together a delayed egress system can be significantly cheaper than buying a self contained delayed egress system.
  2.  To take advantage of existing hardware.  For example, if there is already an electromagnetic lock on the door, adding the other components is relatively easy.
  3. Conditions at the door prohibit use of a self contained delayed egress system.  For example, door size or the presence of existing hardware may require the installer to seek a more creative solution.

 





Bottom line, unless you have a prison, you cannot lock ’em in.  Well, not without permission.  🙂

The Wrap-Around Door Reinforcer

4CW2A wrap-around door reinforcer is a metal sleeve that slides over the door at the lock prep to conceal damage and/or reinforce the door.  They are a quick and handy solution when wood doors are damaged by forced entry and are often installed to strengthen new wooden doors against forced entry attempts.

In my experience a wrap does not really deter forced entry, but it does limit the damage done to the door.   I have found that when wood doors equipped with wrap around door reinforcers are burglarized, often only the wrap and the lock need replacing, not the whole door.   As with all door security hardware, if your lock is installed in a wrap-around door reinforcer and your neighbor’s lock is not, a would-be burglar may choose to break into your neighbor’s place instead of yours; however, this hypothesis is dependent on the highly dubious notion that a burglar is behaving rationally.  If the person were behaving rationally they would not risk their freedom and personal safety breaking into to somebody’s home to steal  their iPad or PC and selling it for chump change to their drug dealer.

Another benefit to using wrap-arounds is that they can act as a drill guide for lock installation.  Be careful, however, not to let the hole saw chew up the wrap.  Also, especially with stainless steel wraps, be sure not to let your drill bind up with the metal at high speed.  Injury would be likely.

Wraps are typically used on wooden doors, and while it is possible to use them on hollow metal doors, they never seem to fit quite right without a fight.  It seems that hollow metal doors measure exactly 1-3/4 inches thick whereas wood doors tend to measure closer to 1-11/16 inches.  Variations in door thickness affect the way a wrap will fit (or not fit) on a door.

A wide variety of wrap-arounds have been created to accommodate various locks and conditions.  Don Jo Manufacturing currently carries the largest assortment, and if a new kind of lock by a major manufacturer emerges, they are pretty quick to design a wrap for it.  To get the right borewrap for your application you need to know:

  • Door thickness
  • Size of the wrap you want
  • Diameter of the lock bore
  • Backset
  • Finish
  • Through-bolt holes (yes or no)

(see illustration)

Standard door thicknesses for wraps are 1-3/8 inches and 1-3/4 inches.  Some models of wraps are available thicker doors.   Wraps come in a variety of heights, but height is usually determined by the kind of lock the wrap is designed for and the backset.  See the illustration for bore, through-bolt hole and backset details.

For other wraps you may need other dimensions.  For example, Don Jo makes a number of wrap-arounds for interconnected locks and these (naturally) have two bores cut in instead of one.   If you need a wrap for a mortise lock you may have to change the trim on the lock to make it work, or you might have to drill lever, cylinder and thumb turn holes into a blank wrap to customize it to the lock you have.  See my warning about hole saws and stainless steel above.  I earned myself sprained fingers that way once.

I used to joke about certain doors that they could use a door sized wrap.  Then some enterprising individual actually brought one by.  The idea didn’t go anywhere, as far as I know, but it was a good concept:  one wrap covered the door completely in sheet metal and another covered the frame.  Still, at that point why would one just buy a hollow metal door and frame?

And that about wraps it up.

Compact Electric Strikes

A common problem with installing electric strikes is cavity depth – that is, how deeply you need to cut into the frame (or wall) so that the electric strike will fit. For most of the twentieth century electric strikes were, and most still are, designed without consideration for this factor. Instead they are designed for burglary resistance and durability.

VD6211

Von Duprin 6211 Electric Strike

Click on  the dimensional diagram of the Von Duprin 6211 electric strike at right.   You can see that its total depth is 1-11/16 inches. All of its internal parts are heavy duty, and it has a heavy cast body and a thick, finished face plate. Most of the parts are individually replaceable. To install the 6211 in a hollow metal door frame, the dust box must be removed and often material inside the door frame – sheet rock, wood, masonry, whatever – must be removed in order to accommodate the strike. If the strike must be installed in a grouted door frame the installer is in for perhaps an hour’s worth of work that may involve a masonry drill, a 2-1/2 lb. sledge hammer, a masonry chisel and safety goggles.

HES 5000 Dimensional DrawingsIn more recent years a new generation of low profile (shallow depth) electric strikes has become available, offering unprecedented ease of installation. The HES 5000 (illustration at left) was one of the first strikes on the scene to offer a depth of only 1-1/16 inches, and advertised that it could be installed without even removing the dust box from the frame. I have found it is usually much easier to knock out the dust box for wiring reasons, but it is true that the unit will fit neatly inside most original equipment dust boxes in hollow metal frames.

More recent offerings in the shallow depth electric strike department include the Trine 3478, the HES 8000 and the Adams Rite 7440, illustrations shown at the end of this article.  All are UL Listed burglary resistant. The HES 8000 offers 1500 lbs. holding force, the 3478 offers 1200 lbs. holding force and the Adams Rite, with its innovative double keeper design, offers 2400 lbs. of holding force.  The Trine 3478 offers an install with a very tiny lip cutout, and the HES 8000 offers the advantage of needing no lip cutout at all. Each of them fit in a strike cavity only 1-1/16 inches deep.

These strikes have revolutionized electric strike installation. Before, a good installer might install six or ten electric strikes in a day. Now a really fast installer might be able to install 20 or more, greatly reducing labor and other costs associated with installation.

What’s the Trade-Off?

None of the internal parts of these strikes are available. When these strikes break, you throw them away and buy new ones. Also they do not last as long. Whereas it is not unusual to see a Von Duprin 6211 or a Folger Adam 712 still in use after 10 or even 20 years, 6 years of service is a long time for a low profile strike. In ten years you might be replacing a spring or solenoid in a Von Duprin, but you might be installing your second or third low profile strike in the same door frame in that same amount of time. This is a small inconvenience.

Upon installing that third strike in the same hole, you probably will not yet have equaled the price of a single Folger Adam 712 or Von Duprin 6211. If price up front is the primary consideration, low profile is definitely the way to go. But if in about 12 years you are installing the fourth replacement strike in the same prep, those expensive, harder-to-install, heavy duty strikes start to look like a much better value.

strikethree

HES model 8000, Trine model 3478 and Adams Rite model 7440

Thank you.

Schlage CO and AD Series Mortise Lock Parts

Schlage AD Series

Schlage AD Series

This just goes to show that there is no substitute for field experience. In the quest to provide the best service to his customer, this locksmith went past my advice and the advice of factory tech support to find the best solution.

The locksmith inquired about a replacement latch for a Schlage CO200MS mortise lock. I called Schlage Tech Support and they said that there were no replacement parts available for that CO-200 Series mortise lock chassis; that the entire mortise chassis had to be replaced for a hefty sum and I relayed this info to the locksmith. The locksmith, however, knew that Schlage advertised that the CO series locksets incorporated the Schlage standard L-series lock chassis “for durability and dependability.” Based on this, the locsksmith took a chance, went to the parts list for the L-Series mortise lock with the same function and ordered the replacement latch. He reports that is identical and works fine.

Good to know! One can assume that many parts from the L Series mortise lock with the same function will work in all AD and CO series mortise lock bodies. Like I said, you learn something new every day.

Thanks for stopping by.

How to Order Door Hardware for Small Commercial Projects

This article is for facilities or property managers who need to buy hardware for change-of-use projects in which there is no architect involved.

On larger projects that involve build-outs or new construction, along with the doors architects usually specify the door hardware, often with the help of an Authorized Hardware Consultant (AHC).  On smaller projects wherein the services of an architect are otherwise not required, hardware choices often fall to you:  the facilities or property manager or owner.  This article will provide language and concepts that will facilitate communication between you and your hardware dealer and/or installer.

Get Good Advice

If you do not already have one whom you do business with, choose a qualified hardware installer.  I may be a little biased, but I think locksmiths make the best hardware installers.  Some contractors also have hardware installation specialists on staff who are qualified to do the work.  Experienced and qualified hardware installers can help answer your questions as you tackle this project.

Specifying the wrong hardware can be expensive, so your hardware choices can be very important.  In addition to your hardware dealer or qualified installer, your local building inspector and fire marshal can be invaluable sources of information.  They will be able to tell you, for example, if a particular door needs panic hardware and/or fire rated hardware.  Your qualified installer should also be able to help with these choices, but if there is ever a choice you are not sure of you can always consult these governmental authorities.

 

Know Your Doors

Number Your Doors 

Assign each door a number.   Stick a label with the door number on every door on the edge on the hinge side, just above the top hinge.   List the door numbers across the top of a spreadsheet.   Under each door number enter the existing hardware, door dimensions and other characteristics as discussed in the following sections.

Existing Hardware

Do a survey of the property and catalog every door, hinge, kick plate, door closer and lock.  Base your notes on the following categories of information in this article and you should be able to answer most questions your hardware installer may have without them having to visit.  You get two benefits from this:

  • Knowledge of what you have and what you want
  • Savings of time and therefore, money

List every hardware item on every door.  Be sure to open the door and look on both the inside and the outside.  Below is an illustration of some of the different kinds of hardware one may find on a door.

hardwaredoors

Don’t forget the wall or floor stops.

You may ultimately decide to reuse your existing hardware if it suits your intended use of the space and is in good working order.  You may need to rely on your hardware installer to help you determine what may be kept and what should be discarded.

Fire Rated vs. Non Fire Rated

Fire rated doors are designed to resist the spread of a fire within a structure.  Fire rated doors get their fire rating from Underwriters Laboratories and have a UL label on them showing the fire rating.  Only fire rated hardware can be used on fire rated doors if the fire rating is to be maintained and your project is to pass inspection.  Interior stairwell doors are always fire rated.  Other interior doors often may be fire rated as well.  Check all doors for fire labels; consult your local Fire Marshal if you are unsure.

thicknessLocks for fire doors are UL listed as such and must positively latch whenever the door is closed.  Without exception, fire rated doors must be closed and positively latched in the event of a fire.   Therefore fire rated doors always have a door closer and some kind of UL listed latching device, such as a mortise lock, fire rated exit device or UL listed cylindrical lock.

Non-fire rated exit devices may have a “dogging” mechanism that keeps the push bar pushed in so that the latch(es) remain retracted.  Usually this is apparent as a small hole in the bar where a hex key can be inserted to dog the device down.  Sometimes the dogging mechanism is operated by a key cylinder.  If your device is equipped with any kind of dogging it is not a fire rated device.

Fire rated doors must be equipped to self-close.  This must almost always be accomplished through the use of a door closer.
Exterior doors are not usually fire rated, or if they are labelled may not have to comply with the positive latching rule.   Consult your local fire marshal or building inspector if you have any question.

Failure to comply with fire and life safety code can have expensive consequences so use extra care.

doordimensionsDimensions

Accurate dimensions of door and frame are vital when choosing door hardware.  Here are some common door measurements:

  • Width
  • Height
  • Thickness
  • Reveal
  • Stile width
  • Rail height

Door Width and height can be important when you are choosing a door closer or an exit device, and vital in complying with the American Disability Act (ADA) that requires openings to provide 32 inches of passage clearance.   This includes the space occupied by the open door.

reveal

The Reveal.

Door thickness can be important when ordering door closers, exit devices and locks.  Reveal dimension is important for certain types of door closer installations.

As shown in the illustration below, the stile is the vertical part of a door that is made up of the components, stile and rail, whereas the rail is the horizontal part.  Most stile and rail type commercial doors are aluminum, although more and more of them are Fiber Reinforced Plastic.

 

alumstileandrail

Stile width is important when ordering locks or exit devices.  Rail height is important when ordering door closers or electromagnetic locks.

Photos of doors are also good to have, but are not a substitute for accurate measurements.  

Handing

The “hand” of a door describes the direction it swings in relation to its hinges.  If you imagine yourself being the hinge, and your right hand is on the door while your left hand is on the frame (like the person in the picture), the door is Right Hand.

handingwithhands

His right hand shows that this is a right hand door.

 

T-handing

Doors are always Left Hand (LH) or Right Hand (RH) however some locks can be Left Hand, Right Hand, Left Hand Reverse (LHR) or Right Hand Reverse RHR).   “Reverse” means that the locked side of the door is the pull side.  If a ‘reverse’ handed lock is installed on a Right Hand door, the lock is said to be Left Hand Reverse.  If it is installed on a Left Hand door it is said to be Right Hand Reverse.

All exit devices are reverse handed.

Location

The location of a door affects the hardware that can be installed on it.  For example, locking exterior doors in commercial facilities designed to accommodate a given number of people are usually required to have panic hardware – that is, an exit device with a push bar that goes across the door, the actuating portion of which must measure at least half the width of the door.   Most exit devices easily comply with this requirement.

All life safety code compliant buildings have a “path of egress,” that is, a clearly marked escape route in case people need to get out of the building in a hurry if, for example, the building is on fire.   Electrically lit exit signs are usually required to be placed along the path of egress to show people where they need to go.  Doors located in the path of egress are referred to as “egress doors” and are almost always required to swing in the same direction as the path of egress.

As previously discussed, while exterior doors are rarely fire rated, interior doors are often fire rated.  Fire rated doors need to be positively latched in the event of a fire, so if you are using exit devices with electric latch retraction, the latches must be extended in the event of a fire; if you are using fire rated electric strikes, they must be locked in the event of a fire.  Usually this is achieved (in both cases) through the use of a fire alarm interface relay, which is a device by which the fire alarm system can interrupt power to locking devices in the event of a fire.

Stairwell doors are unique in that not only are they fire rated – so they must be positively latched in the event of a fire – they must also usually be unlocked in the event of a fire.  This is all fine and good if locking the stairwell doors is not required, (passage function mortise or Grade 1 cylindrical locks or fire rated exit devices with passage function trim will all do the job just fine) but when access control is required the range of choices is limited.  Electric strikes cannot be used, but electrified fail safe mortise or cylindrical locks can be used as well as electrified fail safe exit device trim.  All such devices must be automatically unlocked by the fire alarm system as described above.

Composition

What is your door made of?  Doors made of different materials often require different kinds of hardware.

  • If a magnet is attracted to your door, then it is a hollow metal door.  Hollow metal doors are perhaps the most popular doors to be used in commercial facilities.
  • Is your door mostly glass with a relatively slim frame around it?  Then it is probably an aluminum storefront door.
  • Wooden doors are also common and used in all of the applications as hollow metal doors.
  • FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastic) doors are also becoming more popular all the time, and they are available in different configurations to accommodate almost every application.

Lock Prep

Commercial hollow metal or wood doors are usually prepped one of three ways:

  • Blank – no prep whatsoever
  • 86 Prep – prepared for mortise clock
  • 161 Prep – prepared for cylindrical lock, 2-3/4 inch backset, with ANSI standard 4-7/8 inch tall strike

BacksetThe 161 Prep is a prep for a cylindrical lock.  It can be identified by a 2-1/8 inch diameter hole (called the ‘bore’) centered 2-3/4 inches from the edge of the door and a an opening in the edge of the door that is 2-1/4 inches high by 1-1/8 inches wide.  Centered in this edge prep is a 1-inch diameter hole for the latch.   The distance between the edge of the door and he centerline of the door is called the “backset.”

Most Grade 1 cylindrical lever locks have through-bolts that must be drilled outside the diameter of the 2-1/8 inch hole.  Then it is said that the lockset has through-bolts “outside the prep.”

Aluminum and glass storefront doors have specialized hardware.  Most hardware designed for other kinds of doors will not fit on a narrow stile storefront door, but may fit on a wide stile door.  Aluminum doors most commonly come with a prep for an Adams Rite MS1850S deadbolt.  Adams Rite offers other locks and exit devices that fit this same prep.

Locks

Lock Functions

There are many, many lock functions, but here are a few of the most common.  Common lock functions often correspond to door use or location.  Office doors are usually equipped with office function locks:  locks that can be locked from the outside only by key, but can be locked from the inside by pushbutton or turn knob.   Classroom doors get classroom or classroom security function locks.  Single occupant bathrooms get privacy locks and/or occupancy indicator deadbolts.  Janitors’ closets and storerooms are fitted with storeroom function locks.  Non-locking doors get passage function locks:  locks that are always unlocked from both sides.

Wherever you use an electric strike you will probably also use a storeroom function lock.  You will also need a door closer.

In order to comply with ADA requirements, all locks should be equipped with lever handles.  Check with your local building inspector to make sure your choice of lever design is ADA compliant.

Keying

Even if you intend to use electronic access control, your locks will probably still have keys.   To determine which key will open which door, determine who will have access to that door.  The more doors that are opened by the same key, the greater the convenience and the greater the security risk.  Therefore key control must go hand in hand with keying.

If you are only using keys for access and have an existing master key system, it is helpful to have access to the bitting list for your system.  If you do not have it on site, perhaps the locksmith who created the system still has it.  With the bitting list a locksmith can determine whether it is possible to add more locks (more changes, s/he would say) to your system and may be able to safely add changes without creating keys that open more than one door in the system.

There are software programs on the market that create master key systems, but unless you are a locksmith I suggest you leave the keying (and the software) to a locksmith.

If you are creating a new group within an existing system – for example, you are head of maintenance at a small college that is opening a new department within an existing building – and you already have an institution-wide master key system in place, you may want to create a sub-master key that opens all the doors within this new group.  This will be convenient, but remember to keep such a key in a safe place and be careful who you give it to.  This is the essence of key control.
In addition to your new sub-master key, it is wise to key doors alike only when they will always be opened by the same people.  For example your utility closets may only be opened by your maintenance staff, so you may want to key all your utility closets alike.  They will also be accessible via the sub-master and the existing master key.

The important principle here is to realize that you put locks on door to keep people out and you give keys to people so that they can get in.  Key control is making sure the people you want to keep out don’t get the keys and the people you want to let in do.

In addition to keying software, key control software is also available.  Usually, however, if you are creating a small group of, say, 25 doors or less, a simple spreadsheet or even a hand written ledger may be all you need to keep track of your keys.

Access Control

The same principle applies to access control, but the practice of access control is much simpler.  In access control you simply give everyone their own unique credential (magnetic stripe card, proximity card, pin code, etc.).  The access control system keeps track of who accesses which door and when.   You can have one credential open all the locks, but then you have to be careful who you give that credential to.  It acts as your master key.

One advantage of access control is that you will be able to tell who accesses what door and when.  If your project will house sensitive or expensive equipment or intellectual property, you may want the ability to keep records of the movements of people who have access to it.

Another advantage of access control is that you can change who has access to a given door without changing the lock.  Often one can add and delete users from any given door right from one’s desk using the access control system software.

Other Door Hardware

Hinges

There are many, many varieties of hinges.  On small projects I have found that the hinges and doors are often reused if they are in good working condition.  But hinges must be replaced if they are damaged or worn.  Take the time to identify and learn about the hinges on your job.

The overwhelming majority of hinges in the United States are one size, finish and configuration.  They are 4-1/2 inches high and 4-1/2 inches wide; they have ball bearings to reduce friction and increase life; and, by far, most of them are satin chrome plated steel.  They are full mortise hinges because both leaves are cut in:  one is cut (or mortised) into the frame and one is cut into the door.  These are called “butt hinges,” I’m not sure why.

The correct way to measure a hinge is [height] by [width] as shown in the illustration below:

HingeMeasure

You can check out my full article on hinges here.

Door Closers

I write of door closers at length elsewhere.

For your small commercial project you need to know how you want each door closer to behave on each door.  There are some limitations.  For example, you cannot have door closers with hold-open arms on fire rated doors unless they are electric and so can be released by the fire alarm.   If you restrict your use of hold-open hardware to exterior doors you will be completely safe from code violations, but this is not always practical.   Remember, therefore, that hold open hardware on fire doors must be releasable by the fire alarm panel and you should be okay.

As mentioned earlier, the reveal dimension of your header can affect whether or not you can use a closer mounted in top jamb configuration.  Other opening idiosyncrasies – arch top doors, transoms, odd widths – can also affect your choice of door closer.  My best advice is to take good measurements and consult with your qualified hardware installer.

Auto Operators

Also called power operators or automatic door openers, auto operators are growing more in demand every year as we move toward a more inclusive society.   These devices are potentially dangerous if specified or installed incorrectly.  Therefore if you need an automatic door opener your best bet is to hire an automatic door company.   Your second best bet is to have your qualified hardware installer choose and install a low energy power operator that is designed to exert less force, thereby presenting less of a potential hazard.

Auxiliary / Decorative Hardware

On most openings one finds a door stop.   The purpose of the door stop is usually to prevent the hardware on the door from hitting and damaging the wall, but sometimes it is used to prevent the door from opening too far.   There is a great variety of door stops designed to accommodate different conditions.

In addition to door stops there may be kick plates or other protection plates, door viewers, lock guards, surface bolts, metal numerals or letters, mail slots, or various and sundry other hardware items to serve a myriad of purposes.  Most of these items are fairly self explanatory.

Kick plates, armor plates and protection plates are measured like hinges:  height x width.

Review 

Once you have assembled the information and organized it by door number, review it as best you can for accuracy and completeness.   You can always go back and check if you have to.

  • Door dimensions, handing, composition and location
  • Whether or not doors are fire rated or non-fire rated
  • List of existing hardware and/or lock preps
  • Lock functions, design, finish and keying (and access control)
  • Hinge sizes and finishes
  • Door closer functions and finishes
  • Auto operators, if any
  • Auxiliary hardware required

Armed with this information you will be on good footing when you discuss the job with your qualified door hardware installer.  Best of luck with your project.

The Scary Spec

hellspec

If you are a door hardware professional you’ve seen them: the stupid specification, the dumb door schedule and the hardware take-off from hell. If I had a penny for every dollar I’ve saved customers by debunking bad specs, I’d probably be a gazillionaire today.

Where do they come from? There are a couple of sources. One is software problems – i.e. bad software or architects who don’t know how to use their software. Another is ignorant or incompetent architects. A third is inept or misinformed hardware consultants. However, what really allows the bad hardware spec to go forward is lack of communication.

Dysfunctional Software, Architect or Industry?

I was working with a systems integration company on delayed egress systems for schools in St. Louis. The salesman from the integrator sent me the door schedule from the architect and right away I noticed that there were two electromagnetic locks on each door. “This spec won’t work,” I said to myself, but when I called the salesman, he replied in the typical attention-deficit manner of many salesmen, “Listen, I don’t care, just price it out and send me the quote. The bid goes up in an hour.”

Since Murphy’s Law was written by a locksmith named Murphy with the hardware industry in mind, this fool of a salesman won the bid and the project manager and I were left to figure out what the architect may have meant. I spent some time trying to devise a system of relays that would allow the redundant locks specified for every door to work together more or less in compliance with life safety and building codes, but the more I tried to make the cockamamie conglomeration of hardware fit the application, the more I realized I needed to speak to the architect and find out what he had in mind.

Perhaps because the project manager was afraid that my company – a hardware distribution company – would sell to his customer direct, he would not give me the architect’s contact info. Luckily, as I had him fax me more and more documents to try to figure the spec out, he finally sent me one with the contact info on it by accident.

When I called the architect it turned out that the new software he was using did not delete the old hardware when he added the new hardware. Half the hardware was on the spec by accident. After the architect removed the redundant hardware (with a little help from me) the spec was rewritten and the job went forward with few problems, all because of a little communication.

Electrifying

A project manager called me to get a quote on about twenty fail safe electric strikes. He said that he needed fail safe because the doors needed to be unlocked in the event of a fire to comply with life safety code. So, naturally, I asked the obvious question: “Are these fire doors?”

“Yes, they are,” he replied.

“Then the strikes must be fail secure, not fail safe,” I said.

“But they can’t,” he countered. “The Fire Marshall said they had to be unlocked if the fire alarm went off.”

“Ah,” I said. “Are these stairwell doors?”

“Yes!” he said. “They are all stairwell doors.”

Of course, stairwell doors are fire rated because a stairwell tends to become a chimney in a fire. So they must remain positively latched. Yet, because they are stairwell doors, life safety code dictates that at least some of them (it varies by locality) must be also unlocked.

There are two ways to lock a fire door so that it is both positively latched and unlocked in the event of a fire emergency. It can be done with an electric lock or with an electromagnetic lock; it cannot be done with an electric strike because an electric strike works by releasing the latch bolt of the lock. If the latch bolt is released, the door is not positively latched.

In this small conversation I may have saved the project manager’s company several thousand dollars or maybe more. If, for example, I had asked no questions, but simply quoted and subsequently sold him the electric strikes he asked for, and then his technicians installed them, and then the Fire Marshall demanded they all be removed, at the very least the strikes would have been non-returnable. At worst, the Fire Marshall might have demanded that they replace every door frame they cut to install an electric strike, because the letter of the building code says that a fire rated door frame can only be altered in a fire rated door shop. In short, I saved that project manager from a potential hardware fiasco.

In conclusion, the hardware you choose as an architect, project manager or security professional is no joke. So take your time, and take it seriously. A moment of careful consideration can avoid major problems. Remember, when it comes to hardware, “Whatever can go wrong will go wrong.”

What Is A Pullman Latch?

comparisonA Pullman latch is a type of exit device latch. The leading edge of a Pullman latch, the part that hits the strike first as the door closes, is a ramp.  The back of the latch, the part that rests against the strike to keep the door latched shut, is rounded.  When the Pullman latch comes into contact with another object it retracts automatically.  It is a simple, spring-loaded mechanism.

Some rim exit devices have Pullman latches, but most concealed and surface vertical rod exit devices do not.  Most vertical rod exit devices have a main latch that is shaped like a Pullman latch but also has an additional piece that looks like a kind of separate little latch, or auxiliary deadlatch.  This part interacts with the mechanism of the latch to keep the top latch retracted until this separate piece hits the strike as the door closes.  Then the main latch pops out and locks into the strike.

Latch release extended position.

Latch release extended position.

This latch-and-release design top latch is used by many manufacturers as the mechanism that holds both top and bottom latches in the retracted position while the door is open. That way the latches do not make contact with the surfaces of the door frame, floor or threshold.  When the top latch release makes contact with the strike it releases both top and bottom latches.

The photo to the left shows the latch release fully extended and the latch fully retracted.  This is the state that this type of latch is in when the door is open.

The Pullman latch is most often used with less-bottom-rod (A.K.A. top rod only) vertical rod exit devices when they are to be used with an electric strike.  The normal latch-and-release design is incompatible with most (if not all) electric strikes. Electric strikes that are compatible with Pullman latches are said to have Pullman keepers.

Sometimes Pullman latches are used as the top and bottom latches on vertical rod exit devices because they operate more quietly than standard latches.

Pullman latches are not fire rated and are not for use with fire rated exit devices.

pullmanlatchandkeeper

Illustration of Pullman latch and Pullman keeper. Whereas the locking surfaces of electric strike keepers designed for use with cylindrical or mortise locks is perpendicular to the door frame, the Pullman keeper is at a 45 degree angle to the frame, creating an angled recess to accommodate the unique shape of the Pullman latch.


Overview: School Security Hardware

11line

Sargent 11-Line Cylindrical (bored) Lockset

Security in our elementary and secondary schools has become much more important. Schools across the country are implementing lockdown procedures in case of emergency. Lockdowns are achieved through the use of locks, and new lock functions have been developed for use in concert with existing lock functions to answer the need for increased security.

Classroom Security Locks

A regular, traditional classroom function lock is unlocked and locked from the outside by key and the inside lever is always unlocked, allowing free egress. The problem with this function from a lockdown point of view is that, in order to lock the door, the teacher must open the door to lock it, exposing themselves and potentially their students to danger as they do so.

All major lock companies are either developing a classroom security function or assigning that application to one of their existing functions. Basically, the principal is this: in the event of an emergency the teacher can lock the outside lever handle of the classroom door from inside the classroom, thereby securing the safety of the students without endangering themselves. The inside lever remains unlocked allowing free egress. When locked, entry from the outside is by key only.

Some companies have developed classroom security function locksets in which the outside lever can be locked or unlocked with either the inside key or the outside key. This allows the teacher to continue to use the lock as a traditional classroom lock unless an actual emergency develops.

Click here for a complete description of classroom security function in a mortise lock.

 

Electric Lock Down Systems

Some school districts have opted to lock down their perimeter doors with delayed egress systems. Delayed egress systems are a way of locking exterior entrance doors from both sides while allowing for emergency egress.


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